Based on the idea that cohesive societies are an essential foundation of sustainable development, the Socio-Economic Transitions cluster explores alternative development pathways to advance social justice. Concerned about our globalized economy’s disturbing inequality and alarming environmental effects, we enquire how the gains and risks of globalization are shared between regions, social groups, and within families. We focus on processes of structural change, examining shifts in the relations between people and places and how they affect people’s options and agency. Framing multidimensional disparities as both a cause and an effect of development, we ask whether people’s capabilities have expanded. Our analyses capture the links between assets and well-being achievements in areas such as agriculture, energy, poverty, employment, and innovation.