Geographic information systems (GIS) and satellite remote sensing are integral parts of CDE's research and development approach, ranging from basic support with field maps, satellite images, and GPS surveys for participatory field-based approaches, to modelling and visualization of various spatial dynamics, and the development of customized tools for spatial data management. The geoinformatics unit offers customized consulting and implementation services to assist in-house programmes and projects as well as government officials, NGOs, and private organizations in Switzerland and in partner countries. Comprehensive GIS and Earth Observation projects have been realized in East Africa, the Horn of Africa, Southern Africa, Southeast Asia, and Central Asia.