MEASURING NON-MONETARY POVERTY IN THE COFFEE HEARTLANDS OF LAOS AND RWANDA CDE research featured here was conducted in the coffee heartlands of Laos (the Bolaven Plateau) and Rwanda (Nyamasheke district), two countries that have experienced “miracle” growth rates over the last 20 years. In order to trace the impacts of this growth on the ground and test the effectiveness of non-monetary poverty measurement tools, researchers applied and compared the Multidimensional Poverty Index and the Extreme Deprivation Index, surveying hundreds of households (714 in Laos; 233 in Rwanda). They also conducted over 100 in-depth qualitative interviews and focus group discussions. The results show that the benefits of growth have been distributed unevenly and vulnerability is rising in both settings. Increasing pressure on land is one reason. But another crucial reason are complex labour relations in the agricultural sector. These labour relations – including low wage levels, seasonal precarity, and disguised wage employment (e.g. sharecropping) – are often missed by conventional development interventions focused solely on land issues or crop-related extension services.